Q: You are awakened in the night by your 2-year-old son, who has developed noisy breathing on inspiration, marked retractions of the chest wall, flaring of the nostrils, and a barking cough. He has had a mild upper respiratory infection (URI) for 2 days. The most likely diagnosis is

(a) :  Asthma
(b) :  Epiglottitis
(c) :  Bronchiolitis
(d) :  Viral croup
(e) :  Foreign body in the right mainstem bronchus
Answer:  Viral croup

Q: A 4-year-old child falls from the back of a three-wheeled vehicle, hitting his head. He experiences no loss of consciousness. In the emergency room, he is alert and oriented without focal findings on examination. He has blood behind his left tympanic membrane. CT scan of the skull is likely to show

(a) :  Subdural hematoma
(b) :  Epidural hematoma
(c) :  Intraventricular hemorrhage
(d) :  Basilar skull fracture
(e) :  Hydrocephalus 
Answer:  Basilar skull fracture

Q: A recovering premature infant who weighs 950 g (2 lb, 1 oz) is fed breast milk to provide 120 cal/(kgd). Over ensuing weeks, the baby is most apt to develop?

(a) :  Hypernatremia
(b) :  Hypocalcemia
(c) :  Blood in the stool
(d) :  Hyperphosphatemia
(e) :  Vitamin D toxicity
Answer:  Hypocalcemia

Q: What is the most common cause of congenital nephrotic syndrome ?

(a) :  Denys-Drash syndrome
(b) :  Finnish type of congenital NS
(c) :  Nail patella syndrome
(d) :  Frasier’s syndrome
(e) :  none of above
Answer:  Finnish type of congenital NS

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