General-surgery

Q: The response to shock includes which of the following metabolic effects?

(a) :  Increase in sodium and water excretion
(b) :  Increase in renal perfusion
(c) :  Decrease in cortisol levels
(d) :  Hyperkalemia
(e) :  Hypoglycemia 
Answer:  Hyperkalemia
Explanation:  

Q: All of the following are contraindications to passing a nasogastric tube EXCEPT

(a) :  suspected perforation of the esophagus
(b) :  confirmed perforation of the esophagus
(c) :  history of esophageal varices
(d) :  nearly complete obstruction of the esophagus due to benign or malignant strictures
(e) :  presence of an esophageal foreign body
Answer:  history of esophageal varices
Explanation:  

Q: Signs and symptoms of hemolytic transfusion reactions include

(a) :  Hypothermia
(b) :  Hypertension
(c) :  Polyuria
(d) :  Abnormal bleeding
(e) :  Hypesthesia at the transfusion site 
Answer:  Abnormal bleeding
Explanation:  

Q: Which one of the following cases is considered a clean-contaminated wound?

(a) :  Open cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis
(b) :  Herniorrhaphy with mesh repair
(c) :  Lumpectomy with axillary node dissection
(d) :  Appendectomy with walled-off abscess
(e) :  Gunshot wound to the abdomen with injuries to the small bowel and sigmoid colon
Answer:  Open cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis
Explanation:  

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