Pharmaceutical Care

Q: Which of the following best describes the common clinical manifestations of hypoparathyroidism?

(a) :  hypercalcemia and hypochlorhydria
(b) :  hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia
(c) :  hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia
(d) :  hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia
(e) :  hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia
Answer:  hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia
Explanation:   Hypoparathyroidism usually presents itself as a disorder of calcium metabolism in which serum calcium levels of the patient decrease while levels of phosphate increase in an inversely proportional manner. Low-serum calcium levels may precipitate a potentially serious condition known as tetany. To prevent the development of this disorder and to treat the hypoparathyroidism, calcium supplements such as calcium gluconate, calcium carbonate, or calcium lactate may be prescribed.

Q: The treatment of choice for herpes simplex infection of the eyelids and conjunctiva is

(a) :  idoxuridine (Stoxil)
(b) :  bacitracin (Baciguent)
(c) :  amphotericin B (Fungizone)
(d) :  metronidazole (Flagyl)
(e) :  mupirocin (Bactroban)
Answer:  idoxuridine (Stoxil)
Explanation:   Idoxuridine (Stoxil) is an antimetabolite that selectively inhibits the replication of viral DNA. It is used primarily in the treatment of herpes simplex keratitis, a disease of viral origin that can cause blindness.

Q: Which of the following drugs are classified as mitotic inhibitors? I. methotrexate II. zalcitabine III. Vinblastine

(a) :  I only
(b) :  III only
(c) :  I and II only
(d) :  II and III only
(e) :  I, II, and III
Answer:  III only
Explanation:   Vinblastine (Velban) and other vinca alkaloids, such as vincristine and vinorelbine, are considered to be mitotic inhibitors.

Q: Patients on lithium carbonate therapy should be advised

(a) :  not to restrict their normal dietary salt intake
(b) :  to stop taking the drug if they experi- ence drowsiness
(c) :  to limit water intake
(d) :  to take the medication as a single dose in the morning
(e) :  not to take the drug with food
Answer:  not to restrict their normal dietary salt intake
Explanation:   The rate of excretion of lithium carbonate is generally independent of urine flow and dietary sodium. However, in the presence of sodium deficiency, the excretion of lithium is markedly decreased and toxic levels can accumulate rapidly. Conversely, high sodium intake enhances lithium excretion.

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