Q: Certain scraps of evidence bear out those who hold a very high opinion of the average level of culture among the Athenians of the great age. Pericless funeral speech is undoubtedly the most famous evidence from Athenian literature, that its level was indeed high. However, Pericles was a politician, and it is possible that he was flattering his audience. We know that thousands of Athenians sat hour after hour in the theater listening to the plays of the great Greek dramatists. The Greek plays, particularly the tragedies, maintained an extremely high intellectual level throughout, with no letdowns, no concessions to the lowbrows or to the demands of realism, like the gravediggers scene in Shakespeares Hamlet. The music and dancing seen in these plays were also of an equally high level. The best modern parallel can be seen in the restrained, difficult opera of the 18th century. The comparison is no doubt dangerous, but can you imagine almost the entire population of an American city (in suitable installments, of course) sitting through performances of Mozarts Don Giovanni or Glucks Orpheus? Perhaps the Athenian masses went to these plays because of a lack of other amusements. They could at least understand something of what went on, since the subjects were part of their folklore. Undoubtedly the theme of grand opera is not part of the folklore of the American people. Question: According to the author the average American A. Enjoys Hamlet B. Loves folklore C. Is not able to understand grand opera D. Seeks a high cultural level E. Lacks entertainment.
Q: Unemployment is an important index of economic slack and lost output, but it is much more than that. For the unemployed person, it is often a damaging affront to human dignity and sometimes a catastrophic blow to family life. Nor is this cost distributed in proportion to ability to bear it. It falls most heavily on the young, the semiskilled and unskilled, the black person, the older worker, and underemployed person in a low income rural area who is denied the option of securing more rewarding urban employment…. The concentrated incidence of unemployment among specific groups in the population means far greater costs to society that can be measured simply in hours of involuntary idleness or dollars of income lost. The extra costs include disruption of the careers of young people, increased juvenile delinquency, and perpetuation of conditions which breed racial discrimination in employment and otherwise deny equality of opportunity. There is another and more subtle cost. The social and economic strains of prolonged underutilization create strong pressures for cost-increasing solutions…. On the side of labor, prolonged high unemployment leads to “share-the-work” pressures for shorter hours, intensifies resistance to technological change and to rationalization of work rules. On the side of business, the weakness of markets leads to attempts to raise prices to cover high average overhead casts and to pressures for protection against foreign and domestic competition. Q. Serious unemployment leads labor groups to demand
Q: The villager has usually been very conventional in his thoughts and approach. He is unenthusiastic to modify his customary way of belief and doing things. His approach in many compliments is homemade is most excellent. For example more farm animals farmers in villages favor to nourish their cows and buffaloes with a habitat mix concession of home oil cakes like pulses, mustard or cottonseeds, jiggery, salt etc. It takes a lot of time, which is hard to believe, every day trial and research to persuade the countryside cattle farmer that mix feeds, systematically formulated, develop the production of milk, without any incremental price. The age old principles and approach towards social group, belief, women, time and funds take time to alter. The villager has conventionally been a supporter in the values of karma or destiny. He has found it more suitable to charge his financial hardship, underprivileged living condition and straitened community position on bhagya (Karma or Destiny). The safety that the villagers find in the position quo, act as a deterrent to alter and test in the short run. Many of this old-fashioned approach, price system and out looks are altering, due to advance level of alertness and teaching. On the other hand the rate of alter is lethargic. Attitudes that have fossilized over the centuries, do take time to modify. Question: Which one of the following is not the usual reason offered by an average Indian villager for his poverty?
Q: There is a quite common sentiment that the use of nuclear arms is obviously different to morality and that its making probably so, does not go far sufficient. These activities are not only conflicting to ethics but also to law and if the lawful objection can be added to the ethical, the argument beside the use and the produce of these weapons will significantly be unbreakable. Now the time is ripe to estimate the duty of scientist who intentionally uses their proficiency for the creation of such weapons which has deterious result on mankind. To this should be added to the fact that more than 50% of the trained scientific manpower on the earth is now busy in the armaments business. Now it is suitable that manufacture of arms of death in a world of scarcity is a question that must lay a hand on the scientific conscience. A gathering of biologists on the Long term wide-reaching Biological cost of Nuclear War added scary dimensions to those biological affects consequential from weather changes may at least be as severe as the direct ones. Sub cold temperature , low light levels and high dose of ionizing and ultra violet rays expanding for many months after a huge scale nuclear nation , at least in the northern hemisphere. Efficiency in usual and agricultural eco systems could be ruthlessly constrained for a year or more. Post war survivors would face malnourishment as well as chilly condition in the dark and be bare to near lethal dose of rays. If, as now seems possible, the southern hemisphere were exaggerated also, worldwide disruption of the bio sphere could result. In any event there could be stern consequences, even in the areas not exaggerated directly, because of the inter trust of the world financial system. In either case the extermination of a large fraction of the earth’s animals, plants and microorganisms seems probable. The inhabitants size of Hemo sapiens possibly could be condensed to pre historic levels or below and annihilation of the human genus itself cannot be debarred. Question: According to the passage the argument against the use and manufacture of nuclear weapons
Q: Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution has shaped not only human morphology but also human behavior. The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraints - ways of feeling, thinking, and acting that come naturally in archetypal situations in any culture. Our frailties - emotions and motives such as rage, fear, greed, gluttony, joy, lust, love-may be a very mixed assortment quality: we are, as we say, in the grip of them. And thus they give us our sense of constraints. Unhappily, some of those frailties our need for ever-increasing security among them is presently maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail, they, too, are said to be biological in direction, and therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes. We would need to comprehend thoroughly their adaptive origins in order to understand how badly they guide us now. And we might then begin to resist their pressure. Question: It can be inferred that in his discussion of maladaptive frailties the author assumes that A. Evolution does not favor the emergence of adaptive characteristics over the emergence of maladaptive ones B. Any structure or behavior not positively adaptive is regarded as transitory in evolutionary theory C. Maladaptive characteristics, once fixed, make the emergence of other maladaptive characteristics more likely D. The designation of a characteristic as being maladaptive must always remain highly tentative E. Changes in the total human environment can outpace evolutionary change.