Q: A pharmacist has 80 mL of a 1.5% benzalkonium chloride solution. What will be the final ratio strength if this solution is diluted to 1500 mL with purified water?
Q: Which of the following systems is used in formulating Retin-A Micro?
Q: What caloric density value (kcaljg) should be used when calculating the contribution of dextrose in infusion solutions?
Q: Generally, the presence of impaired renal function or overt renal failure in a patient reduces the requirement(s) for I. all drugs II. drugs that are reabsorbed from the kid- ney tubules III. drugs that are directly excreted or whose active metabolites are excreted by the kidneys
Explanation: Although the presence of impaired renal function or renal failure does not contraindicate the use of drugs that are directly excreted or the active metabolites of which are excreted by the kidney, it does modify the dose required to produce a given therapeutic effect. Renal impairment or renal failure allows these drugs or their metabolites to accumulate in the blood. Drug accumulation in these situations can be avoided by reducing the dose and/or the dosage schedule of the drug. Careful monit
Q: Parenteral solutions that are isotonic with human red blood cells have an osmolality of approximately how many mOsm/L?
Explanation: Osmolarity, expressed as mOsm/L, is included on the labels of large-volume parenteral (LVPs). Those injections with a value of approximately 300 mOsm/L will be iso- osmotic and presumably isotonic with the blood. For example, 5% dextrose injection has a value of 280 mOsm/L, whereas 0.9% sodium chloride injection has a value of 308 mOsm/L. One calculates the osmolarity of a solution by first determining the millimoles of chemical present, then multiplying by the number of ions formed from one